The Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) began active operation in Nigeria in 1936. After a reputational dent in 1995 over the Ogoni incident, Shell undertook a major review of its strategies in the Niger Delta region. The company implemented extensive consultation to overhaul its practices in the region. The company‟s aspiration to contribute economic development and conflict prevention was accompanied by disputes over reward systems which resulted in civil unrest and violence which significantly hampered the company’s social license to operate (SLO) (WAC Global Services, 2003).
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